A Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) is a living organism identical to its conventional counterpart except for the addition of one or two extra genetic traits, e.g. insect resistance and herbicide tolerance, which were transferred to the organism using genetic engineering (GE) techniques.

These techniques can be summarised in the four main steps required to make a GMO – preparation of the host tissue, preparation of the gene(s) that will be transferred (the transgenes), transformation and the regeneration of a new GMO.